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Toxic Mold Training
for Black Mold Testing, Mold Maintenance, Black Mold Decontamination,
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methods of black mold sampling and mold testing !


Living with Mold

JACKSONVILLE, FL -- Even with high levels of unhealthy mold in her house, a First Coast woman says she cannot afford to move her family out.

Mold can happen to anyone in a new or old home. Last February, First Coast News introduced viewers to Linda Armstrong. She had just tested her home for mold and the results confirmed the levels of toxic mold were so high that she was told to move out of the home. One year later, she's still there. MORE

Dangerous Mold
By: Carmen Coursey
News 13 On Your Side
Feb 18, 2003

I almost laughed when Bill Fisher, a mold inspector for Mobile Tech, handed me a mask and goggles before our tour of a Panama City Beach home. But once inside, I was glad for the protection.
"This is the bathroom door, and as you can see, it's just like the dining area door, covered with mold," said Bill. MORE

Parents say mold making students sick
They say their children attending King Middle School have developed a variety of ailments.

BRADENTON -- District officials who came to King Middle School on Thursday to discuss the status of a renovation project were instead confronted by parents complaining that mold at the school is making students and staff sick.

"We're at the point where we feel like the only way to get things done is to storm the School Board," said parent Cathy Mackey. MORE

Alliance Opposes Texas Mold Remediation Bill
January 23, 2003

The Alliance of American Insurers announced its opposition to HB 329, a bill introduced into the Texas House of Representatives that would create the Mold Assessors and Remediators Act. The act would establish regulations for mold remediation and provide educational and licensing requirements for individuals engaged in mold remediation. MORE

Tenants fed up with mold Hayward lawsuit against landlord

Jason B. Johnson, Chronicle Staff Writer Wednesday, January 22, 2003

Every night between 1 a.m. and 4 a.m., Joseph Mayer, 15, is awakened by the tightness in his chest. Coughing and shaking, he must suck on a plastic tube connected to a breathing device to calm his asthma attacks.

Joseph's parents believe their son's condition was caused by black mold growing throughout their two-bedroom northeast Hayward apartment, which has a thick musty smell. MORE



January 30, 2003 -- RESIDENTS at 515 Park Ave. are fleeing - and listing - their eight-figure luxury lairs after learning about a toxic mold spreading throughout their high-maintenance building.
Several of the condo apartments, ranging from $7.9 million to $23 million, are flooding the already-strained market for ultra-luxury properties. MORE



Courthouse - Mold May or May Not Be Cause of Illness
Thu, Jan 30, 2003
Officials using neutralizer spray to clean air
By Julie Allison

The Morning News/

ROGERS -- Peggy Butterbaugh has had pneumonia four times in 18 months, and she spent 10 days in the hospital last year.

Butterbaugh, who works in the Carroll County clerk's office, is one of several employees at the Carroll County Courthouse in Berryville who have suffered from illnesses that could not be explained. MORE

Workers sue over alleged mold exposure
By Todd Ruger

At least 11 employees of the Iowa Department of Corrections facility at 605 Main St., Davenport, are suing the building’s owner for damage to their health, citing the building’s water leaks, air-quality problems and high levels of mold.

Eight lawsuits filed Monday in Scott County District Court accuse Community Resources Corp., the not-for-profit company that owns the building, of negligence for allegedly failing to identify and repair water leaks, ignoring visible mold and failing to prevent mold growth or repair raw sewage leaks. MORE

Mold costs still growing
By Tim Ruel

The cost of the mold infection at Hilton Hawaiian Village has reached an estimated $55 million, because of a $15 million jump in expected spending on system and product improvements, Hilton Hotels Corp. said today.

The Beverly Hills, Calif.-based company plans $35 million in mold-related spending this year, which is in addition to $20 million in charges taken by Hilton last year for investigation and remediation efforts. It's still not clear how much of the damage will be covered by insurance, Hilton officials told analysts today. MORE

Black mold can pose danger
By Derek Gentile
Berkshire Eagle Staff

GREAT BARRINGTON -- Black mold, also called mildew, is about as old as dust. There is even mention of it in the Old Testament.

According to the Book of Leviticus, Chapter 14, verses 33-38, "on the seventh day, the priest shall return to inspect the house. If the mildew has spread on the walls, he is to order that the contaminated stones be torn out and thrown into an unclean place outside the town."

Black mold is a member of the fungi kingdom, of which there are more than 1 million individual species, including mushrooms, molds and yeasts. MORE


Harmful mold invades one woman's home

You may have a problem in your home and not even know it. It can hurt your health and cost thousands of dollars to repair.

The problem is mold, and many people like Germaine Thomas never thought it could cause so much damage.

For many years, it was an invisible enemy in Germaine’s home. She says it's caused health problems. MORE

Dogs sniff out termites, toxic mold in buildings

Morning News

FLORENCE -- Sydney's mission at Cumberland United Methodist Church was to make sure the foundation remains firm for its members.

Restoration plans are in the wings for the historic church located along South Coit Street. But the restoration progress is being hampered because the foundation is under attack by ageless and undiscriminating enemies. MORE

Black Mold Displaces Businesses

By Dawn Russell

At least one suite in a shopping and business complex in Flowood has shut its doors because of mold. Some people who still work there are worried about the problem.

If you shop at the Cavalier Shoppe, you're out of luck for now. The clothing store, which is located in a shopping and business complex off Lakeland Drive, has closed it's doors because of a mold problem. The owner says the mold was caused by a leak in the roof. MORE

Western Hills High School accelerates mold cleanup
By Martha Deller
Star-Telegram Staff Writer

BENBROOK -- Cleanup will intensify this week at Western Hills High School where hidden mold was uncovered last year after a construction-related air conditioning outage aggravated old flooding damage in 26 basement classrooms.

American Environmental, which cleaned mold from two other schools last summer, will complete work begun by district employees after the mold was detected at Western Hills last fall, said Mike Lee, the district's lead environmental coordinator. MORE


Steiner School is closed for cleanup of toxic mold
By Ellen G. Lahr
Berkshire Eagle Staff

GREAT BARRINGTON -- High levels of toxic mold at the Rudolf Steiner School have prompted school leaders to shut down the main West Plain Road campus and to relocate the school operations for as long as six to eight weeks, until a cleanup project is complete.

The school was closed last Friday, after school leaders reviewed initial results of an environmental engineering report conducted in late all when some unidentified mold was uncovered in a wall cavity. MORE

First Mysterious Rash, Now Dangerous Mold

The search for the cause of a mysterious rash that has plagued the Dongola School since early January leads district leaders to a frightening discovery. Tests done inside the Union County School building Friday revealed the presence of Stachybotrys, or black mold, a potentially dangerous growth that can cause breathing and other health problems. MORE

Local School has mold problem

Local parents say mold in their school is making their children sick. Now the school is trying clean up the mess.

For weeks, parents of students at Washington Charter School said their children were coming home with bloody noses and allergy symptoms. They say they didn't know what the problem was, until they discovered mold in their classroom. MORE

Hudson pair sues builder over mold

By ANDREW WOLFE, Telegraph Staff

NASHUA – A Hudson couple charges that a local builder skimped on construction of their house, resulting in an outbreak of toxic mold.

Edward and Joan Marden, of 2 Nathaniel Drive, sued Sousa Realty and Development Corp., of 46 Lowell Road in Hudson, in November in Hillsborough County Superior Court.

Their lawsuit claims the roof and attic of the house Sousa built for them didn’t meet town building codes. Sousa disputes the couple’s claims, and contends state law bars any claims for faulty construction more than eight years after a building is completed. MORE

County Schools Dealing With Mold Problem At Red Bank Middle School
posted February 3, 2003

A small section of Red Bank Middle School has been closed off after some mold was found during repairs for a leaky steam pipe.

County School Supt. Dr. Jesse Register said, "We believe we have the problem isolated and are dealing with it. We do not believe it will be necessary to transfer any students away from the school." MORE

Federal agency to investigate mold complaints at school

BY MICHAEL ERB, The Island Packet
Other stories by Michael Erb
Published Tuesday, February 4th, 2003

Representatives from a division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will be at Hilton Head Elementary School this week to survey teachers and test air quality. MORE

Managing Mold, and Lawsuits

ACCORDING to the Insurance Information Institute, an industry organization based in New York, there are more than 10,000 mold-related lawsuits pending in state courts across the country.

And while most of those suits were filed in states like Florida, California and Texas — where weather conditions make it easier for mold to get a foothold — some New York lawyers say that multimillion dollar jury awards in some of those cases seem to be inspiring an increasing number of mold-related claims here. As a result, property managers and lawyers who represent co-ops, condominiums and owners of rental buildings are doing everything they can to ensure that the buildings they represent will not wind up in a mold-related lawsuit. MORE

Health Concerns Breed Suits Over Mold
December 31, 2002
By AARON FAUST, Courant Staff Writer

ENFIELD -- Stephen Champagne says the mold in his rented Elm Street home has sent him to the hospital twice and is responsible for the headaches, fatigue, memory loss and respiratory ailments he has suffered since he moved in a year and a half ago.

His son, who lives with his mother, is no longer allowed to go inside the house, he said, because 4-year-old Stefan's neck balloons to the size of a football and his nose bleeds. MORE

Mold problem being addressed

Dec. 30, 2002

The Horry County Schools system is spending about $300,000 to deal with a mold problem at Myrtle Beach Primary School. MORE

Hoosiers blaming mold for problems

December 30 -- Indiana residents and people nationwide are increasingly blaming mold in their homes for ill health.

The Indiana Chamber of Commerce says over 10,000 mold-related lawsuits are pending across the country. Indiana is among a few states which have proposed legislation to research mold problems and consider how to regulate them. MORE

Mold issues continue to spread

Times Staff Writer

Homes have been razed and schools emptied in recent years, as Indiana residents and families nationwide increasingly attribute ill health and property damage to the phenomenon of mold.

Although mold in itself is nothing new, its contamination has become a financial and legal nightmare for property owners and insurance agents. MORE

Mold issue spreads concern
Growth hinders couple's ideal of a warm, fuzzy home in Cedarburg

Dec. 28, 2002

Cedarburg - Winter is a time for woolly boots, not "extremely fuzzy" boots, like the mold-covered pair in the basement of the remodeled home of Cynthia Collins-Hansen and her husband, Lowell Hansen.

The boots stand as a damp testament to a Hansen family ordeal that began three years ago and has resulted in them being forced out of their mold-infested Cambridge Ave. home last February.

Moldy carpet, moldy walls, moldy furniture. MORE

Residents Say They’ve Tested for Black Mold
(Friday, December 27, 2002

Not only is black mold present in their apartments, it’s also in their blood, say some Granbury Housing Authority residents.
Former housing authority resident Melia Barker stated she and her children recently tested positive for black mold antibodies in their blood. MORE



Girl's Homecoming Delayed: Her House Could Kill Her
Mold Has Taken Over Family's Corona Home

December 27, 2002

ORANGE, Calif. -- The homecoming for hospitalized leukemia patient Camarae Casillas is being delayed because her house could kill her.

The 14-year-old didn't get her wish to go home for Christmas after treatments at Children's Hospital of Orange County because mold has taken over the family home in Corona. MORE

Mold makes her sick, teacher says
Los Banos district to retest portables, clean ductwork.
By Mike Conway
The Modesto Bee
(Published Tuesday, December 24, 2002, 5:54 AM)

LOS BANOS -- A second-grade teacher says her classroom is infected with mold that makes her sick. Cathy Cox avoids using the heater because it stirs up the spores and even tried wearing a surgical mask to see if that would help cut down the problems in her portable classroom. MORE

NAII Says 35 States Have Adopted ISO Mold Limitations
December 24, 2002

Thirty-five states have adopted an approved Insurance Services Office (ISO) mold limitation for homeowners coverage, which allows insurers to exclude coverage for loss caused by mold and wet or dry rot, unless the conditions result from a covered peril. According to the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII), a separate limit for mold damage resulting from a covered peril may be added by endorsement. MORE

State Farm passes on mold

One-fifth of Florida's condo associations faces rate hikes of 132 percent and will no longer have mold coverage, marking the latest chapter in insurers' efforts to head off an explosion in mold-related claims. MORE



Leaks, mold strike Doral apartments
Peter Zalewski

Tenants in at least 60 percent of the 384 rental units at the 3-year-old Jefferson at Doral luxury apartment complex in Miami-Dade County have been asked to leave so the landlord can fix water leaks and isolated cases of mildew. MORE

Appeals court knocks down $32 million judgement in toxic mold case
Associated Press

AUSTIN - In a high-profile case involving a mold-damaged home, a state appeals court on Thursday reduced a jury verdict against Farmers Insurance Group from $32 million to $4 million plus interest and attorneys fees. MORE

Insurer, Fla. break ground over mold
Homeowners to get 'broad-based coverage,' state says
December 18 2002

The Florida Department of Insurance and Florida Farm Bureau Insurance Cos. reached agreement Tuesday on mold coverage, one of the prickliest issues facing homeowners and insurers.

While both sides stress that this is only one case involving one company, it appears to be the first detailed guideline on this issue in Florida. MORE

Crews to check Kennedy Junior High for mold
By Kari Hartman Daily Herald Staff Writer
December 18 2002

While school officials consider how to tackle elevated levels of carbon dioxide at Kennedy Junior High, consultants also will check the Lisle school for mold over winter break.

The probe was sparked by complaints of headaches and sinus problems from several teachers at Kennedy. Some wonder if their health woes can be traced to the school's air quality. MORE

Mold closes Loudon hotel Owner, builders, designers working on problem
December 18, 2002

One of the key issues forcing closure of the Holiday Inn Express in Loudon County is a mysterious mold in the rooms, the construction contractor and state health inspectors have confirmed. MORE



Battle against mold
Norwich Bulletin
December 17 2002

It lurks in shower stalls, basements, other damp areas, and can cause serious health problems. It's mold, an organic fungus that's been around for billions of years. It's also the cause of many health problems in humans, as well as structural damage in homes and buildings.

"If you see mold, it's something that needs to be removed," said John Bolduc, executive vice president of the Eastern Connecticut Association of Realtors in Norwich. MORE

New Home Found For Shelter Plagued By Mold
$1.5 Million Project To Be Completed Within 20 Months

December 16, 2002

CLEVELAND -- Officials said that mold has been attacking the county's shelter for homeless women and children, creating a dangerous environment. MORE

Mold Is Becoming A Significant Real Estate Matter
by Stuart Lieberman

Who ever heard of a home not selling because of mold? Or of a "mold contingency?" Five years ago, no one ever heard of such a thing. But mold is getting more attention and home inspectors need to look for mold on a regular basis, if they are not doing so already.

Most of us laugh at the idea of mold entering into a real estate transaction. But here is the problem: mold litigation is on the rise. More and more lawyers are handling cases relating to mold exposure. And some judgments have been awarded in these cases, suggesting that they may have legal punch. MORE

$557,000 home must be torn down because of mold

Associated Press

Published Dec. 12, 2002

WHITEFISH BAY, Wis. -- In May, Brian and Kaare Lotz bought a $557,000 home, a perfect fit, they thought, for their growing family.

It had a small yard and needed few repairs before the family moved in.

But it also had a hidden problem - mold. MORE

Area officials tackling mold concerns

Ashley Rowland
Sun staff writer

The black slime under your sink is becoming your insurance agent's biggest nightmare.

Across the country, insurance companies and health officials say they've watched complaints about mold - a fungus that can cause health problems ranging from stuffy noses to asthma - surge during the past year. MORE

No Sold If There's Mold

by Blanche Evans

You've heard of Radon, asbestos and lead paint. Now meet the newest official pollutant - mold. Mold is a biological pollutant, a fungi that grows in moist conditions. Molds are found in up to 50 percent of all structures, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.) And it could kill your next real estate deal.

Milton, Ontario Realtor Chris Newell recently lost a sale because of indoor mold. "The seller had a pre-sale inspection done, and it revealed minor cosmetic problems," says Newell. "My buyers brought in a 'good' inspector, and he discovered that the entire underside of the roof was covered in black mold." MORE

Whose Mold Is It Anyway?

by Stuart Lieberman

You live in an apartment and it has a lot of mold. Good news? Bad news? News at all? The answer is all three.

It's good news if you are a mold hobbiest. What an opportunity. And if you can harvest the penicillin, so much the better.

It's bad news if you are one of the many people who react poorly to mold. Some of us just sneeze. Others can become pretty ill. MORE

Beware:Toxic Mold
Is the fungus in your floorboards making you sick? With no clear answers, panic and lawsuits abound

Sunday, Jun. 24, 2001
Sharyn Iler, 52, of the Woodlands, Texas, an upscale suburb of Houston, couldn't figure out what was wrong. Every time she went into her bathroom to put on makeup, her eyes started burning. She felt constantly exhausted, her vision was blurry and she had a dry cough that just wouldn't quit. MORE

Black mold turns home into a prison

BASIN -- Like a convict on death row, Frances Prescott spends her life in a gas chamber waiting for the poison to kill her.

Red and Frances Prescott's home in the southern George County community of Basin has been invaded by black mold that is spreading through their ceiling and walls. Some of the airborne mold spores have started growing in Frances Prescott's lungs, slowly suffocating her to death. MORE

Toxic Mold
Community Advocate
Paul Aker

Whether you rent or own, a little bit of water in your home can quickly grow into a health problem. Mold is a toxic threat.
While experts dispute how dangerous the spores are to your health, one thing is certain, mold clean up is a booming industry. MORE

Sexy it's Not, but Mold is Real Hot

Bob Van Voris
The National Law Journal

The next time you see Julia Roberts battling corporate evildoers in spike heels and a push-up bra, don't be surprised if the villains are named stachybotrys, aspergillus and penicillium.

Erin Brockovich, the real-life law-firm clerk portrayed by Roberts in last year's hit movie, has a house with a bad mold problem. And, like many others who claim that they have been forced from their homes and workplaces by toxic mold, she's suing. Brockovich v. Morrison Associates, No. 051037 (Los Angeles Co. Super. Ct.). MORE

Tests on apartment mold show wide growth, variety
State wants plan for cleanup at Elsmere complex
Staff reporter

Tests on mold samples that state officials collected at an Elsmere apartment complex indicate a variety of molds, some of which can cause allergic reactions and infections.

"The mold was not only extensive in its growth, but there was a large variety," state toxicologist Gerald Llewellyn said, referring to the preliminary findings released by the state's Division of Public Health. "Probably one type of mold has grown on top of another." MORE

Search reveals no mold in Hawkins County schools
Friday, November 08, 2002

By Jeff Bobo

ROGERSVILLE - In light of the black mold crisis gripping schools in Sullivan County, Hawkins County School Superintendent Tommy Dykes said he recently initiated a search for mold in his schools, which revealed his district to be "black mold free." MORE

Mold another problem at CASD school
By Bajeerah Lowe, Special to the Coatesville Ledger November 08, 2002

Reports of mold in the Coatesville Area Ninth and Tenth Grade Center have prompted the administration to hire an engineering firm to inspect the building, said Superintendent James T. Scarnati.

A full report of findings along with short-term and long-term solutions is to be presented in time for the December board meeting. MORE

Kingsport City Schools closing part of Annex due to mold concerns
Saturday, November 09, 2002

By J.H. Osborne

KINGSPORT - Mold concerns have closed, at least temporarily, the part of the Kingsport City Schools Annex that houses the system's alternative school.

It means about 30 KCS students - enrolled in the system's "New Horizons" program - and another 20 or so participants in the school system's "GED +2" program will not have classes Monday.

Acting Superintendent Richard Kitzmiller said air and surface testing for mold has already begun, and some results may begin to trickle in over the weekend. MORE

AAI Discourages Md. Mold Coverage Mandate
November 8, 2002

The Alliance of American Insurers (AAI) pressed the Maryland Insurance Administration not to establish coverage mandate, arguing that such a mandate would destabilize the state's homeowners insurance market.

"Any appropriate solution to the mold issue must address availability, affordability and choice, otherwise the Maryland consumer will be the ultimate loser," said Neil Malady, Alliance Mid-Atlantic regional manager speaking at an informational hearing. MORE

Galt Boys and Girls Club Closed After Mold is Discovered
Children in Galt are being turned away from their after school haven after mold was discovered in the Boys and Girls Club.

The city was first alerted to the problem about a week and a half ago. During a routine inspection, a city employee noticed what appeared to be mold growing in an equipment room. Tests were immediately ordered. MORE

November 6, 2002

Defamation suit filed in $32M mold case
Melinda Ballard, the victor in a high-profile $32 million mold case in the Dripping Springs area, claims Farmers Insurance Group of Cos. and a company spokesman falsely accused her of committing insurance fraud, according to a lawsuit. MORE

'Black mold' closes Bristol elementary
Holston View to be closed for at least the rest of this week
Bristol Herald Courier

Bristol Tennessee's Holston View Elementary School will be closed for at least the rest of this week, after "black mold" was found in parts of the building, school officials said Monday.

Black mold, or Stachybotrys chartarum was found on ceiling tiles in the school's "A-pod" and "B-pod," Director of Schools Steve Dixon said. Officials began testing in city schools after the toxic mold was discovered in nearby Sullivan East High School.
School officials took 13 samples from Holston View and all tested positive for some type of mold, with two testing positive for black mold, Dixon said. MORE

Flood-stricken residents should be wary of mold
The Courier
November 5, 2002

HOUMA – Flooding from Tropical Storm Isidore and Hurricane Lili may have ebbed, but the accompanying health hazards have not.

While pulling out carpets and pouring bleach may seem the obvious solution to cleaning a building after flooding, some experts warn that without proper care, toxic molds can grow during the weeks following water damage.

More than 1,000 molds are found inside homes throughout the United States, where they spread and reproduce by making spores. MORE

Nov 4, 2002
Holston View Elementary Closed Due To Black Mold
by Meredyth Fox
Newschannel 11

Bristol, Tennessee City Schools Director Steve Dixon announced Monday that Holston View Elementary will be closed for the remainder of the week due to the discovery of black mold in the building.

The announcement comes after school officials learned that a test on ceiling tiles, which were being routinely replaced, tested positive for the mold. School officials have been randomly selecting suspicious ceiling tiles from buildings where individuals had expressed concern. Dixon said the school system is still in the process of testing additional buildings. The results from those tests are not yet available. MORE



Mold discovery shuts down library
Vesic Library to reopen after specialists clean affected books
by Andrew Card
November 05, 2002

An unlikely foe has recently barred students and faculty members from entering sections of the Vesic Library for Engineering, Mathematics and Physics--mold.

Mold discovered on an unspecified number of books in early October caused University officials to seal-off the library's first and third floors, which contain about 100,000 volumes of material in the physical sciences and mathematics. MORE

Mold forces two schools to move class
The Leaf-Chronicle

Mold in Montgomery Central High School and Northeast Middle School has forced officials to move classes and clean heating and air conditioning systems this academic year.

At MCHS, the air conditioner will have to be replaced.
But the mold situation is not as bad as it was recently in East Tennessee, where three local schools were closed because of toxic conditions. MORE

Holston View Elementary begins black mold eradication process
Thursday, November 07, 2002

By Matthew Lane

BRISTOL, Tenn. - Efforts to eradicate black mold from Holston View Elementary School were delayed on Tuesday but will be continuing through the rest of the week, school officials announced Wednesday.
Bristol Superintendent of Schools Steve Dixon announced Monday afternoon that the school would remain closed the remainder of the week after he found out earlier in the day that two drop-ceiling tiles from the school tested positive for black mold. MORE



CALN -- Reports of mold in the Coatesville Area Ninth and 10th Grade Center have prompted the administration to hire an engineering firm to inspect the building, said Superintendent James T. Scarnati.
A full report of findings along with short-term and long-term solutions is to be presented in time for the December board meeting.

In the meantime, said Scarnati, extra cleaning of the school, including the air ducts and ventilation system, has been ordered and alternative education opportunities have been offered to the handful of students complaining of severe allergies. MORE

Mold report expected next week
Cost to test school rises to $48,000
BY MICHAEL ERB, The Island Packet
Published Tuesday, November 5th, 2002

Parents and school officials hope to finally learn if mold problems exist in Hilton Head Elementary School when findings from a nearly two-week air quality study are presented next week. MORE

Another Black Mold Case
Date 5 November 2002

Another school in our area is closing because of black mold.
Holston View Elementary in Bristol, Tennessee will be closed the rest of this week.

The mold was found on two ceiling tiles during routine testing.
Parents, faculty and students were told about the results Monday.
More air tests will be conducted this week. MORE

October 31, 2002
Mold Rush Days

A home is a man's castle, and every castle needs a moat to dissuade attackers. In this day and age, instead of a moat the homeowner needs knowledge of current events, a good insurance company, and common sense to fend off the hoards of lawyers and unscrupulous contractors who have encircled American communities. For years, lawyers and contractors have been utilizing scare tactics to swindle millions of dollars from homeowners and insurance companies.

The use of junk science to cheat homeowners and insurance companies started with the asbestos scare of the 1960's. Even today American cities are filled with needlessly abandoned buildings because of lawyers, unscrupulous contractors, and knee-jerk government reaction causing the evacuation of formerly valuable assets. When the lawyers, contractors and politicians milked the asbestos issue for all it was worth, they turned to the myth of radon gas, then radon gas turned into toxic poisoning, then electromagnetic waves (they're coming back again), and now mold. MORE

REGION It's the same mold story health officials are hearing

If you spot mold, just get rid of it and the moisture causing it, health officials say.


Valley residents have steadily become more aware of mold problems in homes, apartments, schools and office buildings.

Even the Trumbull County Health Department isn't immune. The basement of its offices in Warren has been sealed off from the rest of the building because of mold. MOLD



AIG Unit Offers Mold Protection Program to Eastern Schools
October 30, 2002

The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, a unit of American International Group, announced it would offer a mold protection program to help clients prevent and manage risks temming from mold growth.

The new program will first focus on schools in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Connecticut.

"Mold can cause health concerns and major property damage that strains local budgets and disrupts learning," said Richard Williams, Ph.D, vice president for new product development with Hartford Steam Boiler. "But mold can be managed. Our program includes inspections, specific loss control steps, ongoing technical support and insurance protection to help manage, and more importantly, help prevent mold risks. We are working with schools to help avoid lossesdue to mold, rather than just pay a claim." MOLD

Tuesday, October 29, 2002
Mold misconceptions
Scientific evidence still lacking about effects of mold on health
Gannett News Service

Since the late 1990s, concern over toxic mold has mushroomed into congressional hearings, dramatic increases in claims and lawsuits, demands for reform by the insurance and real estate industries, and growing business for those involved in testing for and cleaning up all things dark and slimy. MOLD

Parents await mold test results for two schools

HILTON HEAD ISLAND: Public also will learn recommendations to improve conditions at Nov. 11 forum.

By Jennifer Moore
Carolina Morning News

Beryl Title has "serious concerns" about sending her daughter to Hilton Head Elementary School.

The chronic headaches and impaired vision her daughter suffers from are a result of mold in the school, she said, and she doesn't want to continue to expose her to that environment.

"I don't want to compromise my child's health," she said. MORE

Mold liability worries insurers
Large settlements could prompt exodus; Md. ruling sought on exclusions; Cost of repairing home might exceed its value

By Anne Lauren Henslee
Special To The Sun
Originally published November 3, 2002

Maryland homeowners insurance could be reaching a critical juncture on an unlikely issue that might prove the final straw for insurance companies teetering from market woes and the impact of recent legislation.

Added to the familiar house assailants -- asbestos, lead paint and radon -- mold is deemed a new threat, one that thus far has had little consequence for the state's homeowners, but has become a potential catalyst for the entire industry. MOLD

Sullivan East mold woes not just an isolated experience

By Sam Watson
Press Education Writer

Sullivan East High School’s mold-inspired stay at Bristol Motor Speedway has increased awareness about the need for mold testing and moisture control in other area school districts.

“I’m getting more educated on this, just like everybody else,” Kevin Ward, middle school supervisor for the Carter County School System, said Friday. MORE

Mold closes Duke library temporarily

DURHAM, N.C. - Mold found on books has prompted Duke University officials to close the first and third floors of a library temporarily.
Wayne Thomann, director of occupational and environmental safety at Duke, said Friday that officials closed the Vestic Library for Engineering, Mathematics and Physics until the books are cleaned and the cause of the mold identified. MORE

Mold Takes Over Local Woman's Apartment
Carpets, Walls Covered With Mold

CINCINNATI -- Mold has taken over a local woman's apartment, but she's not sure if she can get out of the building.

Mold Takes Over

The mold is covering the walls, floors, doors, and carpet of Pamela Crooms' apartment in Kennedy Heights, WLWT Eyewitness News 5's Tony Gnau reported.

"It's past gross," Crooms said. "It's disgusting."
Crooms' best guess is that a leaky faucet caused the mold to form. Her landlord fixed the faucet, but the mold moved in a few weeks later. MORE

Air-quality, mold stamped OK after latest study
By Criselda Valdez
The Brownsville Herald

Environmental consultants on Tuesday reported indoor air quality and mold investigations at Hanna High School and the Oliveira Middle School campus show no cause for alarm. MORE

More steps taken to stop mold
October 29, 2002

With the results of mold testing at Lincoln County High School still not in, officials have already taken additional steps to stop the infestation.

A mechanical engineer has inspected the site and recommended that germicidal lights - ultra violet air purification devices - be installed in the school's heating and air conditioning ductwork. The lights would kill the mold as well as bacteria, germs, fungus and the like. MOLD

Inspectors continue work on mold problem at THS

Students and teachers have complained about mold problems at Topsail High School
One of the walls replaced at Topsail High School after traces of mold were discovered.

Mold experts are scheduled to finish their work at Topsail High School today. Inspectors will be back Monday night to continue work that began last Wednesday. MORE

Lincoln County, TN
Mold Found At Valley School

Christie del Amo Reports, 10/25/02

It's Brian Long's last year at Lincoln County High School, so he wants to make every day count. "It is fun. I've never enjoyed class quite as much as this one," Long says.

However, an unseen problem could have kept Brian and other students of class and sick in bed. "A few days ago, we discovered some mold in the school," says Bob Alden, maintenance supervisor for Lincoln County Schools. "Mainly, [the problem is] in the northern portion of the high school," Alden explains. MORE

Mold Forces Woman Out Of Her Apartment

Reported by: Shannon Kettler

The mold inside Pamela Crooms' Kennedy Heights apartment is overwhelming -- it covers the walls from floor to ceiling in just about every room.

The health department said the mold is so bad that they are recommending that Crooms find a new place to stay immediately.
The problem began when the kitchen sink started to leak, Crooms said. "After that, I started to see all the mold coming out." MORE



School Contaminated With Dangerous Black Mold
Rare Mold Can Cause Breathing Problems, Bleeding Lungs
POSTED: 3:45 p.m. CST October 30, 2002

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. -- Constant moisture and humidity may be feeding a dangerous black mold in one Birmingham-area high school.
A laboratory in Florida issued a recent report identifying the mold as Stachybotrys. The fungus was found in a hallway at Mortimer Jordan High School. MORE

State official commends East's mold-fighting efforts
Saturday, November 02, 2002

By J.H. Osborne

BRISTOL, Tenn. - Tennessee's top education official said Friday she hopes school systems across the state take notice of Sullivan County.
"This is a prime example of a community that cares about education,'' Education Commissioner Faye Taylor said while visiting Sullivan East High School - which these days is at Bristol Motor Speedway.

Taylor said she was "delighted" by her visit to East at BMS.
From what she saw, she said, the education of East's 1,000-plus students has been "enhanced,'' "not impeded" by their temporary relocation to the speedway. MORE



Dogwood Elementary May Have Mold

The Knox County school system is taking action to protect an elementary school from mold.

A contractor finished building the Dogwood Elementary School in 1994. School leaders told WVLT VOLUNTEER TV News there is a moisture problem in the school. They said the seals on walls have cracks, and that's what's causing the problem. MORE

Mold House
Richard Essex
On Your Side Watchdog Report
Oct 30, 2002

Ainslie Vice and her husband broke ground in the spring of 96. Six years later they haven't spent one night in the house. From top to bottom Vice says the house has a laundry list of problems. The biggest problem is mold. MORE

Mold seminar held on island
Published Monday, October 28th, 2002

The best mold killer is clean dry air.

That was the message delivered by guest speaker George Graham at a seminar held at Hilton Head Beach & Tennis on Thursday evening.
The seminar -- attended by Hilton Head Elementary School Executive Principal Mary Briggs and district maintenance director Paul Carstens -- was presented as a public service by the Coalition for Safe Schools in response to recent questions about air quality at the elementary school. MOLD




Relative calm settles over Lincoln

Times Correspondent

ROSELAWN -- The drinking water contamination that left this rural Indiana town reeling last spring has quieted since, but some parents still are seething over what they believe could be a lifelong threat to their children's health.

High levels of the gasoline constituent and suspected carcinogen methyl tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE, were found in Lincoln Elementary School's drinking water. The contamination was made public in April, but lab results showed that students were exposed to it for at least two years. In addition, air-quality tests revealed mold contamination in the school. MORE

Olympia holds off on mold standard


OLYMPIA -- Olympia City Council won't take immediate action to adopt mold standards or a tenant relocation assistance ordinance, but the issues aren't off the table indefinitely.

Council members decided late Tuesday night to talk with county officials about a tenant relocation program, which would provide financial assistance to tenants who are forced out of apartments deemed substandard. MORE

Toxic mold breeds lawsuits
Area homeowners take insurance companies to court over problems
By Cheryl Powell
Beacon Journal medical writer

Lawsuits over toxic mold have been flooding courtrooms in some parts of the country. Now these complaints are starting to seep into Akron-area courts as well.

In two suits recently filed in Summit and Stark counties, homeowners are accusing their insurance companies of not paying to correct water damage that led to mold problems. MORE

Developer faces mold suit

The developer of Miami's mammoth Four Seasons tower is facing millions of dollars in lawsuits over a mold outbreak at a similar high-end condominium complex in Washington, D.C.

Millennium Partners is wrapping up an extensive clean-up and relocation effort at its new Ritz-Carlton project in Washington, where it says faulty plumbing spawned an outbreak of mold. Residents sued the New York-based developer, saying the black, inky fungus caused health problems and forced them to abandon their luxury units. MORE

Los Fresnos schools address mold problems

LOS FRESNOS — Aspergillus, cladosporium, stachybotrys and chaetomium — scary words for parents who fear mold could endanger their children’s health.

These mold varieties have been identified in Los Fresnos schools, but experts said the mold problems might not be as dire as they seem.

McMahon Gets $7 Mln in Toxic Mold Lawsuit - Report
Wed May 7, 2003 08:54 PM ET

LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - Entertainer Ed McMahon reaped a $7 million settlement from several companies he sued for allowing toxic mold to overrun his Los Angeles home and kill his beloved dog, a national mold litigation magazine reported on Wednesday. MORE

AAIS To Host Web Seminar on Personal Lines Mold Filings
May 8, 2003

The American Association of Insurance Services (AAIS) will hold a Web-based seminar Wednesday, May 28, concerning new endorsements to allow insurers to limit or exclude personal lines coverage for losses arising from mold and related causes. MORE

Dog Sniffs Out Mold
LAST UPDATE: 5/7/2003 11:43:32 PM
Posted By: Jim Forsyth

Dogs have been trained to sniff out drugs, explosives, and weapons, and now animal technology has gone one step further.

Max, a one year old border collie, is believed to be the first dog in the state trained to sniff out mold. Max will be demonstrated at the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine Thursday. MORE

Mold found in Chenequa Village Hall
Kelly Smith, staff writer April 30, 2003

Village of Chenequa ­- Air purification equipment has been temporarily installed as contractors try to remove mold spores from three rooms in the Village Hall.

Village Administrator Robert Douglas said contractors found mold levels unacceptably high in the foyer entrance to the building, the boardroom, and the police and fire training room. MORE

Control household mold problems before they control you

A hot topic in housing today is mold. Molds long have been recognized as allergens, but media attention to some extensive mold problems has increased awareness and questions.

There are mold spores everywhere. They come into houses in many ways including on clothing and with air movement. There usually is food and adequate temperatures for them to grow in many parts of the home. Mold spores settle and grow in the presence of moisture.

2 On Your Side: The Fungus Among Us

May 6, 2003

VANCOUVER - One of the wettest April's the Northwest has ever seen has created a major problem for many people.

The problem with mold, it hides in your walls where you can't see it.

But it can be so bad it makes your family sick. MORE

Scientists Crack Genetic Code for Mold
Associated Press

PORTLAND, Ore. - Six Oregon scientists were part of the international effort to crack the genetic code of a common mold that has served as a laboratory workhorse for more than half a century.

The complete genetic blueprint of Neurospora crassa, a harmless pinkish-orange fungus that typically sprouts on bread or bark, will help researchers track down the cause of fungal and congenital diseases in plants and animals. MORE

Mold woes grow in Akron
City orders apartment at Waterford condemned
By Bob Downing and Karalee Miller

The Akron Health Department on Wednesday condemned an apartment off Portage Trail Extension because of severe mold problems.

The mold concentration was so heavy that city inspector John Goold became physically ill while in the unit at Waterford at Portage Trail Apartments, a department spokesman said. MORE

House mold causes problems
Reporter: Chris Williams

Claremont, IL May 3 -- Your home is supposed to be your sanctuary from the world.

But one Tri-State family is fighting a losing battle against mold inside its house.

"For health reasons is the big thing why we're out," Pat Harmon said, and the fact the floors are falling down. We can't do it. We can't live here for safety reasons and health reasons. MORE
Health Officials Investigate Mold Problem In Apartment
Apartment Managers Refuse To Speak With NewsChannel5
POSTED: 5:22 p.m. EDT May 1, 2003

AKRON, Ohio -- Health officials spent part of Thursday investigating whether a severe mold problem at an Akron apartment complex was being taken care of.

NewsChannel5's Tracy Carloss reported that officials have been flooded with phone calls after Live On Five Investigator Jodi Brooks' report on Wednesday.

Smelly, wet carpet was tossed in a trash bin after the appalling conditions were exposed. After revealing on Wednesday black mold all over the walls of an empty apartment, NewsChannel5's cameras captured on Tuesday soaking wet floors, mold on the windows and a moldy utility closet. MORE

What is Mold?

Mold is a fungi. There are more than 100,000 known species of mold. Mold can survive the cold of space and high temperatures. High spore levels in the air can have health effects on people. Overexposure can cause breathing problems, congestion, hay fever, and allergies just to name a few. Water damaged building materials is a good food source to promote mold growth in the home environment.

What is Toxic Mold?

Toxic mold can be of any species. Mold becomes toxic, when one is over exposed to high levels and the human body has a reaction to overexposure to these toxins in the environment.


What is Black Mold?

Mold can come in many colors. Just because mold is black does not mean that is Stachybotrys atra. Mold can grow on many types of materials and this in turn can affect it color.


What is a Sick House?

A home that is no longer environmentally safe for people to live in. Mold in the home can cause people to have allergies and other symptoms that could have an impact on their health. Sick House or (Home) in some cases can be treated to remove the contamination to safe levels. In an extreme case of contamination the home my have to be demolished.


What is Mold Allergy?

These are the symptoms that can cause people to have a reaction to high concentrations of mold spores in the home or work environment. Over a period of time the body’s immune system will break down and the subject will experience flu like symptoms. Examples: nasal congestion, inflammation of the sinuses, headaches, and cough just to name a few.


What is Mold Removal?

The elimination of contaminated material in a home or business that has been tested and found to be a danger to public health. A trained professional should do work of this nature.


What is Mold Remediation?

The safe and professional removal of mold contaminated material from a structure, and the use of safe guards to protect the uncontaminated areas of the structure to insure public safety.


What is Mold Mildew?

When people see mildew growth on the north side of their home or in a shaded area most people refer to it as mildew, this is a fungi that likes a dark damp area. This type of mold should be washed from homes and buildings to help cut down on the likely hood of this contaminate from infecting your home environment.


What is House Mold?

This mold is like any mold found in our every day environment. These molds sometimes find their way into our homes and do multiply; in most cases, because of high humidity or from water leaks that can sometimes go undetected giving the mold spores the right condition for growth in walls, floors, and ceiling areas.


What is a Mold Spore?

These spores are microscopic in size it has been said that 250 thousand can fit on the head of a pin, and over 300 million spores can cover one square foot. Mold spores can infect a large area and cannot be seen with the human eye. They are present everywhere indoors and outdoors.


What is Mold Inspection?

A certified mold inspector should perform inspections for mold and other toxic contamination. Using the right equipment to test indoor air quality and visual inspection to locate the source of the infestation and providing a treatment plan to clear the home or business of mold.


What is a Mold Inspector?

This is a person that has been trained in the art of testing air and direct samples for mold spores and other contaminates in the environment.


What is Black Mold Symptoms?

Black mold symptoms can very from person to person. High mold spore counts in the home environment can cause some to have an allergic reaction and they have been known to kill infants that were continually exposed over a long period of time.


What are Toxic Mold Symptoms?

When people are consistently exposed to high mold spore levels a host of symptoms can develop, here a few to look for nasal congestion, irritation of the eyes, inflammation of the sinuses, irritation of the skin, breathlessness, headaches, runny nose, sore throat, hoarseness, fatigue, and memory loss.


What are Toxic Mold Attorneys?

These types of attorneys in most cases are personal injury attorneys or toxic tort attorneys. Ask about their qualifications and experience in this field.


What is Mold Growth?

This is the process by which mold grows and multiplies. When this goes unchecked in the home environment and the levels of mold spores become to high, over exposure to mold can cause health problems.


What is Basement Mold?

This mold can be any number of molds in the fungi family. Basements are cool and damp areas that can grow mold on the walls, under carpet, and carpet padding. Mold growth in the basement can have an effect on the health of everyone living in the home from high mold exposure.


What is Mold Insurance?

Mold insurance is a policy written to help homeowners to recover loses from toxic mold contamination. Some insurance companies are trying to rewrite their policies to exclude mold claims.


Are there different Types of Mold?

There are many types of mold, and in cases of high mold exposure people can have health problems and a variety of symptoms such as asthma, nosebleed, memory loss, fatigue, and hay fever.


What is Mold Exposure?

Being exposed to a high concentration of contamination in a home or work environment that can pose a health risk and cause allergies and other symptoms.


What is a Mold Law Suite?

This is when a person files a suite in a court of law to receive compensation for loss of health and property. In most cases these types of attorneys are personal injury trial lawyers.


What is a Mold Treatment?

Can be a chemical treatment of an area and the removal of contaminated or water damaged material to reduce the spread of mold spores in the home environment. The use of a chemical that can kill mold on contact is preferable.

What are molds?
Molds are microscopic fungi that live on plant or animal matter. No one knows how many species of fungi exist but estimates range from tens of thousands to perhaps three hundred thousand or more. Most are filamentous organisms and the production of spores is characteristic of fungi in general. These spores can be air-, water-, or insect-borne.

What are some of the common indoor molds?

How do molds affect people?
Some people are sensitive to molds. For these people, exposure to molds can cause symptoms such as nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, or wheezing. Some people, such as those with serious allergies to molds, may have more severe reactions. Severe reactions may occur among workers exposed to large amounts of molds in occupational settings, such as farmers working around moldy hay. Severe reactions may include fever and shortness of breath. People with chronic illnesses, such as obstructive lung disease, may develop mold infections in their lungs.

Where are molds found?
Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, year round. Mold growth is encouraged by warm and humid conditions. Outdoors they can be found in shady, damp areas or places where leaves or other vegetation is decomposing. Indoors they can be found where humidity levels are high, such as basements or showers.

How can people decrease mold exposure?
Sensitive individuals should avoid areas that are likely to have mold, such as compost piles, cut grass, and wooded areas. Inside homes, mold growth can be slowed by keeping humidity levels below 50% and ventilating showers and cooking areas. Mold growth can be removed with commercial products or a weak bleach solution (1 cup of bleach in 1 gallon of water). In situations where mold exposure is unavoidable, sensitive people should wear a tight-fitting face mask.

Specific Recommendations:
Keep the humidity level in the house below 50%.
Use an air conditioner or a dehumidifier during humid months.
Be sure the home has adequate ventilation, including exhaust fans in kitchen and bathrooms.
Add mold inhibitors to paints before application.
Clean bathrooms with mold killing products.
Do not carpet bathrooms and basements.
Remove or replace previously soaked carpets and upholstery.

What areas have high mold exposures?
Antique shops
Construction areas
Flower shops
Summer cottages

I found mold growing in my home, how do I test the mold?

Generally, it is not necessary to identify the species of mold growing in a residence, and CDC does not recommend routine sampling for molds. Current evidence indicates that allergies are the type of diseases most often associated with molds. Since the susceptibility of individuals can vary greatly either because of the amount or type of mold, sampling and culturing are not reliable in determining your health risk. If you are susceptible to mold and mold is seen or smelled, there is a potential health risk; therefore, no matter what type of mold is present, you should arrange for its removal. Furthermore, reliable sampling for mold can be expensive, and standards for judging what is and what is not an acceptable or tolerable quantity of mold have not been established.

A qualified environmental lab took samples of the mold in my home and gave me the results. Can CDC interpret these results?
Standards for judging what is an acceptable, tolerable, or normal quantity of mold have not been established. If you do decide to pay for environmental sampling for molds, before the work starts, you should ask the consultants who will do the work to establish criteria for interpreting the test results. They should tell you in advance what they will do or what recommendations they will make based on the sampling results. The results of samples taken in your unique situation cannot be interpreted without physical inspection of the contaminated area or without considering the building’s characteristics and the factors that led to the present condition.


Occupants become sick or may become sick in the future from exposure to airborne contaminants in the house. These contaminants can be chemical or biological.


Indoor air with high concentrations of chemical and/or biological contaminants may cause symptoms in people. Some symptoms may include headaches, nausea, sinus problems, unexplained fatigue, and even cancer.

Chemical contaminants are many and various. Here is a short list.
Household cleaners
Combustion products
Carbon Monoxide
Wood sealers
Fabric waterproofing
Dry cleaned clothes
Foundation waterproofing

Biological contaminants.
Mold spores
Pet dander
Dust mites


Before the energy crisis of the 70s, the standard US home was not typically "tight" construction. Houses had built in infiltration and exfiltration paths. This was good for the IAQ, because outside and inside air were accidentally exchanged. However, the cost of heating and cooling was exorbitant due to these leaky houses. The energy crisis forced builders to build tighter houses with little or no paths for outside air exchange. As a result, indoor contaminants accumulated and thus began the sick house syndrome.


Until recently, the typical Japanese house was purposely built with mechanisms for infiltration and exfiltration. This was done to prevent the buildup of humidity and heat from the hot and humid summer season. Floors under tatami mats were made of planks that allowed infiltration/exfiltration to dry out the mats. Roofing planks were used as the base for typical roofing tiles. Sliding doors are a great way to turn an indoor room into a semi-outdoor room. With this planned natural ventilation, the house would not be quite as hot in the summer as it would without ventilation. However, recently, the modern Japanese wants more thermal comfort in the home during winter and summer. Since this cannot be done efficiently with natural ventilation in most of Japan, they are resorting to mechanical means for thermal comfort. Doing this and saving energy at the same time requires tight construction. Thus, sick house syndrome has become a problem in Japan also.


Hardwood floors instead of composite materials.
Central air conditioning for the entire house.
Hardwood stairs instead of composite materials.
Exhaust fans in kitchens, bathrooms, and toilet rooms that exhaust to the outdoors.


Reduce accidental infiltration/exfiltration in combination with controlled and filtered ventilation.
Use insulation without formaldehyde binders.
Use particle board without formaldehyde binders.
Provide controlled ventilation to satisfy ASHRAE requirements.
Size HP systems to precise requirements to reduce humidity levels.
Use paints and sealers that will not contribute to poor IAQ.
Provide QUIET timer switches for spot ventilation and educate the customer on their usage.
Provide a means for cleaning and maintaining indoor coils on the heat pump system. Provide a humidistat in addition to the standard thermostat for the heat pump system.

Are you looking for training to be a Certified Mold Inspector or Certified Mold Remediation?

It is the goal of S.E.M.I. to offer individuals lecture classes and hands-on training in the business of mold inspection and mold remediation so they are prepared to establish their own mold inspection and mold remediation business or to find employment with established mold inspection companies.

Mold Inspection & Mold Remediation
The Mold Inspection & Mold Remediation curriculum consists of the following required classes and hours:

A Brief History of Mold in Our Environment

(This module gives an explanation of what and why mold is in our environment.)
How Does Mold Contamination Affect Our Health

(This module gives an explanation of how mold in our environment can affect our health. How and why high levels of mold spores affect our air quality.)
Equipment Used in Mold Inspection & Remediation

(This module gives an understanding of what equipment is required and preferred in the mold inspection and remediation profession.)
Mold Inspection Technique and Protocols, Looking For Mold
in Any Structure

(This module gives an in depth study on how to find mold in structures, where to look and what to expect.)
Collection of Mold Samples Procedures and Protocols

(This module will explain the proper procedures on how and where to collect your samples of mold in a home or business environment.)
Lab Reports, Documents, Chain of Evidence

(This module will explain how to read lab reports, documents used in the industry, and how to report on the evidence you found in the structure.)
Case Studies of Mold Contamination in Structures Q&A

(This module will cover cases of mold contamination from start to finish. How, Why, What If ect…)
Mold Remediation Protocols

(This module will explain the proper protocols that you need to follow to safely remediate a structure.)
Mold Remediation Using Chemical Solutions

(This module will explain the different types of solutions used in the industry and the effects it may have on your health)
Furniture, Carpet and Clothing
(This module will cover how to test these materials useing EPA guidelines.) 1hr
Customer Relations

(This module will cover how to communicate with your client’s questions and fears of their home or business being contaminated by mold.)
Dealing with Attorneys on Mold Cases

(This module will cover some of the requirements attorneys will look for such as evidence, reports, and being an expert witness or consultant.)
Fees, Paper work, and Your Clients Q&A

(This Module will cover the fees you should charge and what factors to take into consideration when setting your fees. We will also cover the paperwork needed to be completed at the end of each inspection or remediation.) 1hr


Ten Things You Should Know About Mold
Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions, asthma, and other respiratory complaints.

There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

If mold is a problem in your home or school, you must clean up the mold and eliminate sources of moisture.

Fix the source of the water problem or leak to prevent mold growth.

Reduce indoor humidity (to 30-60% ) to decrease mold growth by: venting bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside; using air conditioners and de-humidifiers; increasing ventilation; and using exhaust fans whenever cooking, dishwashing, and cleaning.

Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.

Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials such as ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need to be replaced.

Prevent condensation: Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping, exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.

In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking fountains, by classroom sinks, or on concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).

Molds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance, providing moisture is present. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, and foods.


Asthma and Mold
Molds can trigger asthma episodes in sensitive individuals with asthma. People with asthma should avoid contact with or exposure to molds.


During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks. Standing water and wet materials are a breeding ground for microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, and mold. They can cause disease, trigger allergic reactions, and continue to damage materials long after the flood.

This fact sheet discusses problems caused by microbial growth, as well as other potential effects of flooding, on long-term indoor air quality and the steps you can take to lessen these effects. Although the information contained here emphasizes residential flood cleanup, it is also applicable to other types of buildings.


Remove Standing Water

Standing water is a breeding ground for microorganisms, which can become airborne and be inhaled. Where floodwater contains sewage or decaying animal carcasses, infectious disease is of concern. Even when flooding is due to rain water, the growth of microorganisms can cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. For these health reasons, and to lessen structural damage, all standing water should be removed as quickly as possible.


Dry Out Your Home

Excess moisture in the home is an indoor air quality concern for three reasons:

Microorganisms brought into the home during flooding may present a health hazard. These organisms can penetrate deep into soaked, porous materials and later be released into air or water. Coming in contact with air or water that contains these organisms can make you sick.

High humidity and moist materials provide ideal environments for the excessive growth of microorganisms that are always present in the home. This may result in additional health concerns such as allergic reactions.

Long term increases in humidity in the home can also foster the growth of dust mites. Dust mites are a major cause of allergic reactions and asthma.


Remove Wet Materials

It can be difficult to throw away items in a home, particularly those with sentimental value. However, keeping certain items that were soaked by water may be unhealthy. Some materials tend to absorb and keep water more than others. As a general rule: Materials that are wet and cannot be thoroughly cleaned and dried should be discarded, as they can remain a source of microbial growth.


How to Identify the Cause of a Mold and Mildew Problem.

Mold and mildew are commonly found on the exterior wall surfaces of corner rooms in heating climate locations. An exposed corner room is likely to be significantly colder than adjoining rooms, so that it has a higher relative humidity (RH) than other rooms at the same water vapor pressure. If mold and mildew growth are found in a corner room, then relative humidity next to the room surfaces is above 70%. However, is the RH above 70% at the surfaces because the room is too cold or because there is too much moisture present (high water vapor pressure)?

The amount of moisture in the room can be estimated by measuring both temperature and RH at the same location and at the same time. Suppose there are two cases. In the first case, assume that the RH is 30% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The low RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure (or absolute humidity) is low. The high surface RH is probably due to room surfaces that are "too cold." Temperature is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve increasing the temperature at cold room surfaces.

In the second case, assume that the RH is 50% and the temperature is 70oF in the middle of the room. The higher RH at that temperature indicates that the water vapor pressure is high and there is a relatively large amount of moisture in the air. The high surface RH is probably due to air that is "too moist." Humidity is the dominating factor, and control strategies should involve decreasing the moisture content of the indoor air.

About Molds
Molds can be found almost anywhere; they can grow on virtually any substance when moisture is present. Outdoors, many molds live in the soil and play a key role in the breakdown of leaves, wood, and other plant debris. Without molds we would all be struggling with large amounts of dead plant matter. Molds break down plant materials by digesting them, using the plant material for food.

Molds produce tiny spores to reproduce, just as plants produce seeds. Mold spores waft through the indoor and outdoor air continually. When mold spores land on a damp spot indoors, they may begin growing and digesting whatever they are growing on in order to survive. There are molds that can grow on wood, paper, carpet, foods, even dynamite. When excessive moisture or water accumulates indoors, mold growth will often occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or un-addressed. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

Molds can trigger asthma episodes in individuals with an allergic reaction to mold.


Can mold cause health problems?
Molds are usually not a problem indoors, unless mold spores land on a wet or damp spot and begin growing. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions), irritants, and in some cases, potentially toxic substances (mycotoxins). Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Allergic responses include hay fever-type symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash (dermatitis). Allergic reactions to mold are common. They can be immediate or delayed. Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs of both mold-allergic and non-allergic people. Symptoms other than the allergic and irritant types are not commonly reported as a result of inhaling mold. Research on mold and health effects is ongoing. This brochure provides a brief overview; it does not describe all potential health effects related to mold exposure. For more detailed information consult a health professional. You may also wish to consult your state or local health department.


Hidden Mold
Suspicion of hidden mold
You may suspect hidden mold if a building smells moldy, but you cannot see the source, or if you know there has been water damage and residents are reporting health problems. Mold may be hidden in places such as the back side of dry wall, wallpaper, or paneling, the top side of ceiling tiles, the underside of carpets and pads, etc. Other possible locations of hidden mold include areas inside walls around pipes (with leaking or condensing pipes), the surface of walls behind furniture (where condensation forms), inside ductwork, and in roof materials above ceiling tiles (due to roof leaks or insufficient insulation).

Investigating hidden mold problems
Investigating hidden mold problems may be difficult and will require caution when the investigation involves disturbing potential sites of mold growth. For example, removal of wallpaper can lead to a massive release of spores if there is mold growing on the underside of the paper. If you believe that you may have a hidden mold problem, consider hiring an experienced professional.

Cleanup and Biocides
Biocides are substances that can destroy living organisms. The use of a chemical or biocide that kills organisms such as mold (chlorine bleach, for example) is not recommended as a routine practice during mold cleanup. There may be instances, however, when professional judgment may indicate its use (for example, when immune-compromised individuals are present). In most cases, it is not possible or desirable to sterilize an area; a background level of mold spores will remain - these spores will not grow if the moisture problem has been resolved. If you choose to use disinfectants or biocides, always ventilate the area and exhaust the air to the outdoors. Never mix chlorine bleach solution with other cleaning solutions or detergents that contain ammonia because toxic fumes could be produced.


Building air quality, toxic mold, allergen or other sick house investigations, mold lab testing services, and information on mold, mildew, moisture, pollen, dust mite, & environmental information for home buyers, home owners, consultants. Field investigations, 24-hr. mold laboratory testing, and mold identification services are offered.


Toxic black mold problem can cause severe health problems & mold illness such as birth defects, miscarriages, headaches, memory loss, destruction of brain tissue, cancer, allergic reactions, loss of hair, skin disease, open skin sores, skin rashes & skin lacerations, fungal infections, chronic sinusitis, sinus problems, allergies to mold, lung diseases [like Aspergilliosis], and other respiratory illnesses, mold induced infections, and even death.

Mold grows well in homes, condominiums, apartments, offices, & other work places & buildings because most property owners & managers do NOT properly maintain building roofs; exterior siding; windows; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning [hvac] equipment & ducts; & plumbing fixtures, water lines, & sewer lines to prevent water intrusion, and/ or they fail to quickly find, detect, search for, & repair mold water plumbing problems such as water leaks, water & sewer breaks, broken water & sewer lines, dripping water, running water, flooding, flood damage, & other water, moisture, humidity, sewer, mold damage problems, black mold infestation, and toxic mold contamination.

The most effective way to find, locate, detect, investigate, & test hidden toxic black mold growth, mold problems, mold damage, black mold contamination, toxic mold infestation, & elevated levels of airborne mold spores in your home, condo, apartment, office, or work place is to search for mold clues and mold signs with Mold Inspection , Mold Investigation & Mold Testing by a Certified Mold Inspector or a Certified Toxic Mold Investigator. Pay for your own toxic mold inspection and mold tests to know the truth about mold problems at work or in your home, apartment, office, or other real estate.

Certified Mold Inspector Class

Toxic Mold Training for Black Mold Testing, Mold Classes held in Florida.


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Mold Training for Absidia sp.
A zygomycete fungus. Reported to be allergenic. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Mold Training for Acremonium sp. (Cephalosporium sp.)
Reported to be allergenic. Can produce a trichothecene toxin that is toxic if ingested. It was the primary fungus identified in at least two houses where the occupant complaints were nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Asexual state of Emericellopsis sp., Chaetomium sp., and Nectripsis sp. It can produce mycetomas, infections of the cornea and nails.


Mold Training for Alternaria sp.
Aw - 0.89. Conidia dimensions: 18-83 x 7-18 microns. A very common allergen with an IgE mediated response. It is often found in carpets, textiles and on horizontal surfaces in building interiors. Often found on window frames. Outdoors it may be isolated from samples of soil, seeds and plants. It is commonly found in outdoor samples. The large spore size, 20 - 200 microns in length and 7 - 18 microns in sizes, suggests that the spores from these fungi will be deposited in the nose, mouth and upper respiratory tract. It may be related to bakers' asthma. It has been associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The species Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other toxic metabolites that may be associated with disease in humans or animals. Common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.

Mold Training for Amerospore
A spherical or oval single-celled fungal spore that is practically unidentifiable by itself. Genera with this type of spore include, but are not limited to, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Trichoderma.
For example, Penicillium is easily identifiable when sampling using culturing techniques. However, when sampling with non-culturing techniques, such as spore traps or tape-lifts, the free spores with no remnants of the fungal structure are indistinguishable from Aspergillus and various other genera that also produce small round and oval spores with little or no pigmentation. Due to this fact, Penicillium will often be categorized on laboratory reports in an "amerospore" and/or "Aspergillus/Penicillium" group.


Mold Training for Arthrinium sp.
Widespread saprophyte found on decomposing plant material, particularly grasses, and on soil. It is a white, fuzzy mold. It should be considered to be an allergen. This fungus has also been documented in various subcutaneous infections. No diseases related to toxic effects have been recorded to date.

Mold Training for Ascospore
A spore borne in a special cell called an ascus. Spores of this type are reported to be allergenic.
All ascomycetes, members of a group of fungi called Ascomycotina, have this type of spore. The minute black dots on rotting wood and leaves or the little cups on lichens are examples of ascomycetes; another is the "truffle" mushroom.


Mold Training for Aspergillus caesiellus
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Mold Training for Aspergillus candidus
Aw 0.75. Conidia dimensions: 2.5-4 microns. Found in warm soils, grain and in the secondary decay of vegetation. Associated with respiratory complaints in a recent house investigation. Can produce the toxin petulin that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals.


Mold Training for Aspergillus carneus
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Mold Training for Aspergillus clavatus
Conidia dimensions: 3-4.5 x 2.5-4.5 microns. Found in soils and animal manure.
Can produce the toxin petulin that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals. This species is only occasionally pathogenic.


Mold Training for Aspergillus deflectus
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

Mold Training for Aspergillus flavus
Aw 0.78. Conidia dimensions: 3-6 microns or 3-5 microns. It grows on moldy corn and peanuts. It can be found in warm soil, foods and dairy products. Some strains are capable of producing a group of mycotoxins- in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal carcinogens. There is limited evidence to suggest that this toxin is a human carcinogen. The toxin is poisonous to humans by ingestion. It may also result in occupational disease via inhalation. Experiments have indicated that it is teratogenic and mutagenic. It is toxic to the liver. It is reported to be allergenic. Its presence is associated with reports of asthma. It can be found in water-damaged carpets. The production of the fungal toxin is dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food source. This fungus is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This fungus is occasionally identified as the cause of corneal, otomycotic and nasoorbital infections.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus fumigatus
Aw 0.82; Optimum> 0.97. Conidia dimensions: 2-3.5 microns. Major cause of aspergillosis. This organism causes both invasive and allergic aspergillosis. Aspergillosis affects individuals who are immune compromised. It is considered a human pathogen. It grows well at 35 degrees C. It is commonly found outdoors in compost piles with temperatures higher than 40 degrees C, in mild to warm soils and on cereals.

Mold Training for Aspergillus glaucus
Conidia dimensions: 5-6.5 microns. Common outdoor fungus in the winter. It is reported to be allergenic. This species is only occasionally pathogenic. It can grow on leather. This fungus can grow at low moisture levels on grains, sugary food products, meat and wool. The ascomycetous state is Eurotium sp.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus nidulans
Aw 0.78. Conidia dimensions: 2-4 microns. Found in mild to warm soils and on slowly decaying plants. Can produce the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. This toxin has been shown to produce liver and kidney damage in lab animals. This fungus is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and/or disseminated aspergillosis. This species is only occasionally pathogenic.


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Mold Training for Aspergillus niger
Aw 0.77; Optimum> 0.97. Conidia dimensions: 3.5 - 5 microns or 4 to 5 microns. Less common cause of aspergillosis. It has a musty odor. It is commonly found in the environment on textiles, in soils, grains, fruits and vegetables. It has been reported to ause skin and pulmonary infections. It is a common cause of fungal related ear infections-otomycosis.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus ochraceus
Aw 0.77. Conidia dimensions: 2.5 - 3 microns. Found in grains, soil and salted food products. It is not usually associated with decaying vegetation. Can produce a kidney toxin ochratoxin A that may produce ochratoxicosis in humans. This is also known as Balkan nephropathy. The toxin is produced at optimum growth conditions at 25 degrees C and high moisture conditions. The ochratoxin may also be produced by other Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Other toxins that can be produced by this fungus include penicillic acid, xanthomegnin and viomellein. These are all reported to be kidney and liver toxins

Mold Training for Aspergillus oryzae
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus parasiticus
Some strains are capable of producing a group of mycotoxins- in the aflatoxin group. Aflatoxins are known animal carcinogens. There is limited evidence to suggest that this toxin is a human carcinogen. The toxin is a poisonous to humans by ingestion. Experiments have indicated that it is teratogenic and mutagenic. It is toxic to the liver. The production of the fungal toxin is dependent on the growth conditions and on the substrate used as a food source

Mold Training for Aspergillus/Penicillium
These are two of the most commonly found allergenic fungi in problem buildings. Aspergillus comes in many varieties (species). Many of the varieties produce toxic substances. It may be associated with symptoms such as sinusitis, allergic bronchiopulmonary spergillosis, and other allergic symptoms.
Penicillium is a variety of mold that is very common indoors and is found in increased numbers in problem buildings. It also has many varieties, some of which produce toxic substances. The symptoms are allergic reactions, mucous membrane irritation,headaches, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Because the spores of Aspergillus and Penicillium are very similar, they are not differentiated by microscopic analysis and are reported together.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus penicilloides
Conidia dimensions: 3-3.5 x 4-5 microns. Can grow in areas with low water activity. It is found in house dust and food.

Mold Training for Aspergillus restrictus
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.


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Mold Training for Aspergillus sp.
Aw 0.75 - 0.82. Reported to be allergenic. Members of this genus are reported to cause ear infections. Many species produce mycotoxins that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals. Toxin production is dependent on the species or a strain within a species and on the food source for the fungus. Some of these toxins have been found to be carcinogenic in animal species. Several toxins are considered potential human carcinogens. Common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema; may also be associated with sinusitis, allergic bronchiopulmonary aspergillosis, and other allergic symptoms.

Mold Training for Aspergillus sydowi
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

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Mold Training for Aspergillus terreus
Aw 0.78. Conidia dimensions: 1.8-2.4 microns or 2 - 2.5 microns. Aleurospores 6 - 7 microns in diameter are also produced. Found in warmer soil and in grains, straw, cotton and decomposing vegetation. Can produce the toxin patulin and citrinin that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals. This fungus is associated with aspergillosis of the lungs and or disseminated aspergillosis. Found as an isolate from otomycosis - ear infection, and onychomycosis - infection of finger or toenails.

Mold Training for Aspergillus ustus
This species is only occasionally pathogenic.


Mold Training for Aspergillus versicolor
Aw 0.78. Conidia dimensions: 2-3.5 microns. It is commonly found in soil, hay, cotton and dairy products. It can produce a mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and cyclopiaxonic acid. These toxins can cause diarrhea and upset stomach. It is reported to be a kidney and liver carcinogen. This species is only occasionally pathogenic.

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Mold Training for Aureobasidium sp.
Found in soil, forest soils, fresh water, aerial portion of plants, fruit, marine estuary sediments, wood. Allergen, Type I allergies (hay fever, asthma). Type III hypersensitivity pneumonitis: "humidifier fever", "sauna taker's lung". Growth indoors is widespread where moisture accumulates- especially bathrooms and kitchens- on shower curtains, tile grout, windowsills, textiles, liquid waste materials. Potential toxic production is not known. Rare reports of: isolates from skin lesions, keratitis, spleen abscess in a lymphoma patient, blood isolate from a leukemic patient.


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Mold Training for Basidiomycetes
Members of a group of fungi called Basidiomycotina, which includes mushrooms and puffballs. They produce spores that are formed on the outside of a special cell called the basidium.

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Mold Training for Basidiospore
Spore from basidiomycetes. Many varieties are reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Bipolaris sp.
A fungus with large spores that could be expected to be deposited in the upper respiratory tract. This fungus can produce the mycotoxin - sterigmatocystin, which has been shown to produce liver and kidney damage when ingested by laboratory animals.

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Mold Training for Blastomyces sp.
Human pathogen. The fungus is commonly found in soil. It is a dimorphic fungus that has filamentous fungus when grown at 25 degrees C. and a yeast form at 37 degrees C.


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Mold Training for Botrytis sp.
Aw 0.93. Conidia dimensions: 7-14 x 5-9 microns. It is parasitic on plants and soft fruits. Found in soil and on house plants and vegetables, it is also known as "gray mold". It causes leaf rot on grapes, strawberries, lettuce, etc. It is a well-known allergen, producing asthma type symptoms in greenhouse workers and "wine grower's lung".

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Mold Training for Candida sp.
Part of the normal flora of mouth and other mucous membranes in the body. Thrush and other diseases caused by Candida albicans usually occur after prolonged treatment with antibiotics or steroids. The environment is not a likely source of exposure for this fungus. Cells from the organism are usually not airborne. Reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Cephalosporium sp.
See Acremonium sp.

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Mold Training for Chaetomium sp.
Large ascomycetous fungus producing perithecia. It is found on a variety of substrates containing cellulose, including paper and plant compost. It has been found on paper in sheetrock. It can produce an Acremonium-like state on fungal media. Varieties are considered allergenic and have been associated with peritonitis, cutaneous lesions, and system mycosis.


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Mold Training for Cladosporium fulvum (Fulvia fulva)
Conidia dimensions: 12-47 x 4-10 microns. It is found on the leaves of tomatoes.

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Mold Training for Cladosporium herbarum
Aw 0.88. Conidia dimensions: 5-23 x 3-8 microns. It is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint and textiles.

Mold Training for Cladosporium macrocarpum
Conidia dimensions: 9-29 x 5-13 microns. It is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint, and textiles.

Mold Training for Cladosporium sp. (Hormodendrum sp.)

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Mold Training for Aw 0.88; Aw 0.84. Most commonly identified outdoor fungus. The outdoor numbers are reduced in the winter. The numbers are often high in the summer. Often found indoors in numbers less than outdoor numbers. It is a common allergen. Indoor Cladosporium sp. may be different than the species identified outdoors. It is commonly found on the surface of fiberglass duct liners in the interior of supply ducts. A wide variety of plants are food sources for this fungus. It is found on dead plants, woody plants, food, straw, soil, paint, and textiles. Produces greater than 10 antigens. Antigens in commercial extracts are of variable quality and may degrade within weeks of preparation. Common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include skin lesions, eye ulceration, mycosis (including onychomycosis, an infection of the nails of the feet or hands) edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.


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Mold Training for Cladosporium sphaerospermum
Conidia dimensions: 3-4.5 microns. It is found as a secondary invader of plants, food, soil, paint and textiles.

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Mold Training for Conidium
A thin-walled, asexual spore that is borne exogenously on a conidiophore and is deciduous at maturity. (plural form: conidia.)

Mold Training for Conidia, unidentified
These are mold spores that do not show morphological characteristics that allow identification. Because there are tens of thousands of types of fungi, many fall into the "other" or "unknown" category. If they are present in significant numbers, additional measures can be taken to identify them. When spore counts are listed in the category: "Unidentified Conidia" their numbers are considered "normal".

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Mold Training for Conidobolus sp.
Can cause a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa (entomophthoromycosis).

Mold Training for Cryptococcus neoformans
A basidiomycetous encapsulated fungal organism found worldwide, mainly around pigeon roosts and soil contaminated with decaying pigeon or chicken droppings. It is generally accepted that the organism enters the host by the respiratory route in the form of a dehydrated haploid yeast or as basidiospores. Hematogenously spreading to extrapulmonary tissues, its predilection for the brain means infected persons usually contract meningoencephalitis, which can be fatal.


Mold Training for Cryptostroma corticale
Conidia dimensions: 4-6.5 x 3.5-4 microns. Found on the bark of maple and sycamore trees and on stored logs.


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Mold Training for Cunninghanella sp.
Can cause disseminated and pulmonary infections in immune compromised hosts.

Mold Training for Curvularia sp.
Reported to be allergenic and has been associated with allergic fungal sinusitis. It may cause corneal infections, mycetoma, and infections in immune compromised hosts.


Mold Training for Dreschlera sp.
Conidia dimensions: 40-120 x 17-28 microns. Found on grasses, grains and decaying food. It can occasionally cause a corneal infection of the eye.

Mold Training for Epicoccum sp.
Conidia dimensions: 15-25 microns. A common allergen. It is found in plants, soil, grains, textiles and paper products.


Mold Training for Epidermophyton sp.
Can cause infections of skin and nails.

Mold Training for Fusarium solani
Aw 0.90. Macroconidia dimensions: 27-52 x 4.4-6.8; Microcondia dimensions: 8-16 x 2-4 microns. Found in plants and soils. Can produce trichothecene toxins that may be associated with disease in humans and animals.

Mold Training for Fusarium sp.
Aw 0.90. A common soil fungus. It is found on a wide range of plants. It is often found in humidifiers. Several species in this genus can produce potent trichothecene toxins. The trichothecene (scirpene) toxin targets the following systems: circulatory, alimentary, skin, and nervous. Produces vomitoxin on grains during unusually damp growing conditions. Symptoms may occur either through ingestion of contaminated grains or possibly inhalation of spores. The genera can produce hemorrhagic syndrome in humans (alimentary toxic aleukia). This is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis, and extensive internal bleeding. Reported to be allergenic. Frequently involved in eye, skin, and nail infections.

Mold Training for Geotrichum sp.
Aw 0.90. Conidia dimensions: 6-12 x 3-6 microns. Aw 0.90. A common contaminant of grains, fruits, dairy products, paper, textiles, soil, and water; often present as part of the normal human flora. The species Geotrichum candidum can cause a secondary infection (geotrichosis) in association with tuberculosis. This rare disease can cause lesions of the skin, bronchi, mouth, lung, and intestine.

Mold Training for Gliocladium sp.
A fungus that is structurally similar to Penicillium sp. It is reported to be allergenic.


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Mold Training for Helminthosporium sp.
Reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Histoplasma sp.
A fungus that has filamentous growth at 25 degrees C. and yeast growth at 37 degrees C. It is reported to be a human pathogen. It may be associated with birds.


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Mold Training for Humicuola sp.
Grows on products with a high cellulose
content. These fungi are also found in soil and on plant debris.

Mold Training for Hyaline Mycelia
Sterile mycelia that is white or transparent. No fruiting structures are produced by the mycelia. Visual identification of these organisms is not possible. Often associated with allergic symptoms.

Mold Training for Memnoniella sp.
A cellulolytic fungus that is very closely related to Stachybotrys sp. Both fungi have a worldwide distribution and are often found together and are commonly found in soil. Recent studies on mycotoxins revealed that Memnoniella echinata can have a toxicity similar to that of some isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum. Both produce varying amounts of simple trichothecenes. Thus, it is suggested that Memnoniella sp. should also be considered potentially dangerous in indoor air. The major difference between the two fungi is that the conidia of Memnoniella sp. are in long persistent chains while those of Stachybotrys are aggregated in slimy heads. Also the aerodynamic diameter of Memnoniella sp. conidia is smaller and it would be expected to have an even greater potential to penetrate deep into lungs than the conidia of Stachybotrys sp.

Mold Training for Microsporum sp.
Causes ringworm in humans.

Mold Training for Monilia sp.
Reported to be allergenic. This fungus produces soft rot of tree fruits. Other members produce a red bread mold. It is infrequently involved in corneal eye infections.

Mold Training for Mucor sp.
Often found in soil, dead plant material, horse dung, fruits and fruit juice. It is also found in leather, meat, dairy products, animal hair, and jute. A Zygomycetes fungus that may be allergenic (skin and bronchial tests). This organism and other Zygomycetes will grow rapidly on most fungal media. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye, and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Mold Training for Myxomycetes
Members of a group of fungi that are included in the category of "slime molds". They're occasionally found indoors, but mainly reside in forested regions on decaying logs, stumps, and dead leaves. Myxomycetes display characteristics of fungi and protozoans. In favorable (wet) conditions they exhibit motile, amoeba-like cells, usually bounded only by a plasma membrane, that are variable in size and form. During dry spells, they form a resting body (sclerotium) with dry, airborne spores. These fungi are not known to produce toxins, but can cause hay fever and asthma.

Mold Training for Nigrospora sp.
Commonly found in warm climates, this mold may be responsible for allergic reactions such as hay fever and asthma. It is found on decaying plant material and in the soil. It is not often found indoors.

Mold Training for Oidium sp.
The asexual phase of Erysiphe sp. It is a plant pathogen causing powdery mildews. It is very common on the leaves stems, and flowers of plants. The health effects and allergenicity have not been studied. It does not grow on non-living surfaces such as wood or drywall.

Mold Training for Paecilomyces sp.
Commonly found in soil and dust, less frequently in air. P. variotii can cause paecilomycosis. Linked to wood-trimmers disease and humidifier associated illnesses. They are reported to allergenic. Some members of this genus are reported to cause pneumonia. It may produce arsine gas if growing on arsenic substrate. This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris green.

Mold Training for Papulospora sp.
These fungi are found in soil, textiles, decaying plants, manure, and paper.

Mold Training for Penicillium sp.
Aw 0.78 - 0.88. A wide number of organisms have been placed in this genus. Identification to species is difficult. Often found in aerosol samples. Commonly found in soil, food, cellulose and grains. It is also found in paint and compost piles. It may cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. It is reported to be allergenic (skin). It is commonly found in carpet, wallpaper, and in interior fiberglass duct insulation. Some species can produce mycotoxins. Common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. It may also cause headaches, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Mold Training for Periconia sp.
Found in soil, blackened and dead herbaceous stems, leaf spots, grasses, rushes, and sedges. Almost always associated with other fungi. Rarely found growing indoors. Reportedly associated with a rare case of mycotic keratitis.

Mold Training for Perithecium
A fruiting body of a fungus in which some types of spores (including ascospores) are produced. (plural form: perithecia)

Mold Training for Peronospora sp.
These species are plant pathogens and the genus is one that causes downy mildews. Peronospora is very common and is an obligate parasite (obligate parasites cannot grow on non living environmental surfaces) found on leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits of living higher plants. Peronospora sp. may be identified in air on spore trap samples since spores have a distinctive morphology. The spores may also be seen in dust as part of the normal influx of outdoor microbial particles. As of this writing, allergenicity has not been studied and no information is available regarding health effects or toxicity.

Mold Training for Phoma sp.
A common indoor air allergen. It is similar to the early stages of growth of Chaetomium sp. The species are isolated from soil and associated plants (particularly potatoes). Produces pink and purple spots on painted walls. It may have antigens that cross-react with those of Alternaria sp. It will grow on butter, paint, cement, and rubber. It may cause phaeohyphomycosis a systematic or subcutaneous disease.

Mold Training for Pithomyces sp.
A common mold found on dead leaves, plants, soil and especially grasses. Causes facial eczema in ruminants. It exhibits distinctive multi-celled brown conidia. It is not know to be a human allergen or pathogen. It is rarely found indoors, although it can grow on paper.

Mold Training for Rhizomucor sp.
The Zygomycetous fungus is reported to be allergenic. It may cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. It occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor sp. It is often linked to occupational allergy. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye, and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Mold Training for Rhizopus sp.
The Zygomycetous fungus is reported to be allergenic. It may cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. It occupies a biological niche similar to Mucor sp. It is often linked to occupational allergy. May cause mucorosis in immune compromised individuals. The sites of infection are the lung, nasal sinus, brain, eye, and skin. Infection may have multiple sites.

Mold Training for Rhodotorula sp.
A reddish yeast typically found in moist environments such as carpeting, cooling coils, and drain pans. In some countries it is the most common yeast genus identified in indoor air. This yeast has been reported to be allergenic. Positive skin tests have been reported. It has colonized terminally ill patients.

Mold Training for Rusts (and Smuts)
These fungi are associated with plant diseases. In the classification scheme of the fungi, the smuts have much in common with the rusts, and they are frequently discussed together. Both groups produce wind-borne, resistant teliospores that serve as the basis for their classification and their means of spread. Rusts usually attack vegetative regions (i.e., leaves and stems) of plants; smuts usually are associated with the reproductive structures (seeds). They can cause hay fever and asthma.

Mold Training for Saccharomyces sp.
Reported to be allergenic. Baker's yeast.

Mold Training for Scopulariopsis sp.
It may produce arsine gas if growing on arsenic substrate. This can occur on wallpapers covered with Paris green. It has been found growing on a wide variety of materials including house dust. It is associated with type III allergy.

Mold Training for Sepedonium
Most easily recognized by the spores, which are colorless to yellow, spiny, round, 1-celled, and produced singly at the ends of short filaments. Sometimes phialides of the Acremonium or Gabarnaudia type may also occur. A few species of Mortierella, as well as the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, produce spores resembling those of Sepedonium. Isolated from soil, but most commonly parasitized mushrooms.

Mold Training for Serpula lacrymans
Common cause of extrinsic asthma (immediate-type hypersensitivity: type I). Acute symptoms include edema and bronchiospasms; chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema.

Mold Training for Smuts
See Rusts.

Mold Training for Sporobolomyces sp.
Reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Sporothrix sp.
Can cause sporotrichosis, but usually only in populations that are immune compromised.

Mold Training for Sporotrichum sp.
Reported to be allergenic. See also Sporothrix sp. for there is some taxonomic confusion between these two genera. This genus does not cause sporotrichosis.

Mold Training for Stachybotrys sp.
Aw - 0.94 , optimum Aw ->0.98. Several strains of this fungus (S. atra, S. chartarum and S. alternans are synonymous) may produce a trichothecene mycotoxin- Satratoxin H - which is poisonous by inhalation. The toxins are present on the fungal spores. This is a slow growing fungus on media. It does not compete well with other rapidly growing fungi. The dark colored fungus grows on building material with a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. Areas with a relative humidity above 55%, and are subject to temperature fluctuations, are ideal for toxin production.
Individuals with chronic exposure to the toxin produced by this fungus reported cold and flu symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss and generalized malaise. Other symptoms include coughs, rhinitis, nosebleed, a burning sensation in the nasal passages, throat, and lungs, and fever. The toxins produced by this fungus will suppress the immune system affecting the lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow. Animals injected with the toxin from this fungus exhibited the following symptoms: necrosis and hemorrhage within the brain, thymus, spleen, intestine, lung, heart, lymph node, liver, and kidney. Affects by absorption of the toxin in the human lung are known as pneumomycosis.
This organism is rarely found in outdoor samples. It is usually difficult to find in indoor air samples unless it is physically disturbed (or possibly -this is speculation- a drop in the relative humidity). The spores are in a gelatinous mass. Appropriate media for the growth of this organism will have a high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content. The spores will die readily after release. The dead spores are still allergenic and toxigenic. Percutaneous absorption has caused mild symptoms.

Mold Training for Stemphylium sp.
Reported to be allergenic. Isolated from dead plants and cellulose materials.

Mold Training for Syncephalastrum sp.
Can cause a respiratory infection characterized by a solid intracaitary fungal ball.

Mold Training for Torula sp.
Found outdoors in air, soil, on dead vegetation, wood, and grasses. Also found indoors on cellulosic materials. Reported to be allergenic and may cause hay fever and asthma.

Mold Training for Trichoderma sp.
It is commonly found in soil, dead trees, pine needles, paper, and unglazed ceramics. It often will grow on other fungi. It produces antibiotics that are toxic to humans. It has been reported to be allergenic. It readily degrades cellulose.

Mold Training for Trichophyton sp.
Can cause ringworm; athlete's: foot, skin, nail, beard and scalp. Reported to be allergenic. Found on soil and skin.

Mold Training for Trichothecium sp.
Aw 0.90. Conidia dimensions: 12-23 x 8-10 microns. Found in decomposing vegetation, soil, corn seeds, and in flour. The species Trichothecium roseum can produce a trichothecene toxin that may be associated with disease in humans and other animals. Reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Tritirachium sp.
Reported to be allergenic.

Mold Training for Ulocladium sp.
Aw 0.89. Isolated from dead plants and cellulose materials. Found on textiles.

Mold Training for Verticillium sp.
Conidia dimensions: 2.3-10 x 1-2.6 microns. Found in decaying vegetation, on straw, soil and arthropods. A rare cause of corneal infections.

Mold Training for Wallemia sp.
Aw 0.75. Conidia dimensions: 2.5-3.5 microns. Found in sugary foods, salted meats, dairy products, textiles, soil, hay and fruits.

Mold Training for Yeast
Various yeasts are commonly identified on air samples. Some yeasts are reported to be allergenic. They may cause problems if a person has had previous exposure and developed a hypersensitivity. Yeasts may be allergenic to susceptible individuals when present in sufficient concentrations.

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